Rendering Methods for Iterated Function Systems (1991)




This paper describes rendering methods for iterated function systems (IFS's). The rendering process consists of the generation of a field of data using an IFS and its visualization by means of computer graphics. Two groups of methods are presented: 1. Rendering of the attractor A of an IFS. These attracting methods may visualize the geometry and additionally the invariant measure supported by the attractor. 2. Rendering the complement of the attractor. There are three approaches, namely methods representing Euclidean distance from A; repelling methods, computing the escape time of a point from A, and methods using (electrostatic) potential functions of the attractor. The last of these methods calculates integrals with respect to the invariant measure of the attractor. An algorithm which generates an approximation of such integrals with prescribed tolerance is presented. This provides an alternative to the usual approach based on Elton's ergodic theorem and time average of trajectories generated by the ``chaos game'', where no error bound is available. Algorithms specifying the details of all methods are presented, some of them in the form of pseudocode. Examples of images obtained using these algorithms are given. The relationship to previously developed methods for visualizing Mandelbrot and Julia sets is also discussed.



	Author =  “Hepting, Daryl H. and Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw and Saupe, Dietmar”,
	Title =  “Rendering Methods for Iterated Function Systems”,
	Url = "",
	Editor =  “Peitgen, Heinz-Otto and Henriques, Jos'e Marques and Penedo, Lu'is Filipe”,
	Address =  “New York”,
	Booktitle =  “Fractals in the Fundamental and Applied Sciences: Proceedings of the First IFIP Conference on Fractals in the Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Lisbon, Portugal, 6-8 June, 1990”,
	Keywords =  “IFS, fractals, rendering methods”,
	Month =  “December”,
	Organization =  “IFIP”,
	Pages =  “183–224”,
	Publisher =  “North-Holland”,
	Year =  “1991”,

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